Pneumonia Nursing Assignment Help
What is Pneumonia?
Are you looking for professional pneumonia nursing assignment help? We have the best writing team to help you ace your assignments every single time. Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection of the lungs. The small sacs in the lungs called alveoli normally fill up with air when a person inhales. When your lungs are infected with pneumonia, the alveolus will fill up with fluid and pus. This will make breathing difficult and painful and most importantly restrict oxygen hence making it a life-threatening condition.
Further, they will become inflamed and therefore bring about symptoms such as coughing (with pus), chills, and fever. Bacteria and viruses cause pneumonia and the seriousness depends on the extent of the infection. This ranges from mild to severe/life-threatening.
Pneumonia is known to mostly affect small children whereby it is responsible for 14% of the deaths of children under the age of 5.
What are the Causes of Pneumonia?
Since we have established that bacteria and viruses cause pneumonia, it is also important to note that the Streptococcus pneumonia is one of the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia. Other types of bacterial pneumonia include;
- Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
- Legionella pneumonia
- Haemophilus influenzae
Respiratory bacteria causes viral pneumonia. These viruses include; measles, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus infection, SARS-CoV-2 infection, human parainfluenza virus infection (HPIV), and chicken pox.
The symptoms of both bacterial and viral pneumonia are similar. However, it is noted that viral pneumonia symptoms are milder and can even clear up by themselves in 1-3 weeks. It is important to note that viral pneumonia can transition into bacterial pneumonia.
This is spread around through the fungi in bird droppings or the soil and it usually affects people with a weak immune system. The fungi in question include; cryptococcus species, pneumocystis jirovecii, and histoplasmosis species.
Is Pneumonia Contagious?
The answer is yes. Inhaling the droplets from the cough or sneezes of infected people can spread Pneumonia (both bacterial or viral). Bacteria and viruses known as Haemophilus influenza and streptococcus pneumoniae are the leading causes of this. Coming into contact with surfaces that are contaminated with the virus or bacteria that cause pneumonia. It is also important to note that you can contract pneumonia from the environment.
What are the Symptoms of Pneumonia?
The symptoms of pneumonia sometimes vary depending on the age of the patient as well as underlying health issues. For instance, infants may lack symptoms but exhibit a lack of energy, vomit, or experience difficulty eating or drinking. Further, children under 5 years may experience wheezing and/or fast breathing. Older patients will experience milder symptoms such as low body temperature and confusion. The common symptoms of pneumonia include;
- Coughing that may produce pus
- Chest pain especially when you breathe or cough
- Lack of appetite
How is Pneumonia Classified?
Pneumonia is classified depending on how and where it is acquired.
- Community-Acquired Pneumonia. One acquires this type of pneumonia away from a medical facility
- Aspiration Pneumonia. One is likely to contact this type of pneumonia by inhaling bacteria from saliva, food, or drinks into the lungs. This is more likely to occur if you have difficulty swallowing.
- Hospital Acquired Pneumonia. This usually occurs after a hospital stay. It is the most stubborn type of pneumonia as it is likely more resistant to antibiotics. This makes it difficult to treat.
- Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. This type of pneumonia especially occurs in people who use ventilators.
What is Walking Pneumonia?
It is a mild type of pneumonia, and the mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for it. It usually goes unnoticed. People with walking pneumonia usually wave it off as a mild respiratory infection and this may go untreated/undiagnosed for an extended period hence making the recovery period longer than usual. Its symptoms may include; chills, mild fever, reduced appetite, dry cough, chest pain, and lastly, shortness of breath.
Stages of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is classified by the area of the lungs affected.
- Lobar Pneumonia
Your lungs are made up of lobes. Lobar pneumonia means that one or more lobes of the lungs are affected. There are 4 stages of lobar pneumonia depending on the extent of the pneumonia.
- Red Hepatization- In this case, your lungs have a solid and red appearance. This is because there are immune cells and red blood cells in the fluid.
- Gray Hepatization- At this stage, your red blood cells begin breaking down as the white immune cells remain. This means that the lung tissue changes to a gray color from red.
- Congestion- The fluid in the air sacs in your lungs contains infectious organisms and the tissue in the lungs will appear congested and heavy.
- Resolution- This stage means that your body’s immunity is actively fighting off the infection. Coughing at this stage will help to eject the remaining fluid from your lungs.
Lastly, this is a type of pneumonia that affects the areas around the bronchi. Bronchi are the tubes that branch out from your windpipe to your lungs.
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
A doctor is going to first take your medical history and then ask you when the symptoms started to manifest themselves. Thereafter, they will then proceed to give you a physical exam such as listening to your lungs using a stethoscope. This way, they are trying to detect unusual sounds such as crackling in your lungs.
- XRAY- You may also be sent to get an x-ray which will help detect inflammation in the lungs and its exact location and how extensive it is.
- Blood Sample- The doctor may also require a blood sample. This will confirm the infection and what’s causing it.
- CT-SCAN- This creates a better picture of your lungs and the infection for your doctor.
- Pulse Oximetry- This device measures the amount of oxygen in your blood. This way, the doctors will know whether your lungs are pushing enough oxygen into your blood.
- Bronchoscopy- This involves a tube with a camera which goes through your mouth and into your lungs to examine if your airways are open.
- Fluid Sample- In this case, a needle goes in between your ribs to collect a fluid sample in the pleural space in your chest. It will help identify the presence of infection.
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