Pneumonia Nursing Assignment Help
Pneumonia Nursing Diagnosis
Pneumonia nursing assignment help sometimes begins with understanding this topic. Nursing diagnoses for pneumonia are created based on an evaluation of the patient’s health and may differ dependent on the symptoms and demands of each individual patient. The nursing care plan and treatments are influenced by nursing diagnoses. Possible nursing diagnoses for a patient with pneumonia include the following:
Diminished lung function and altered alveolar-capillary membranes that lead to impaired gas exchange.
Improve respiratory and oxygenation status.
Interventions: Give oxygen treatment, keep an eye on your breathing and oxygen saturation levels, promote deep breathing exercises, and give you bronchial hygiene (such chest physiotherapy) to keep your lungs healthy. Reduced cough reflex and increased mucus production cause ineffective airway clearance.
Goal: To keep airways open and to encourage productive coughing.
Interventions: Give oxygen treatment, keep an eye on your breathing and oxygen saturation levels, promote deep breathing exercises, and give you bronchial hygiene (such chest physiotherapy) to keep your lungs healthy.
Reduced cough reflex and increased mucus production cause ineffective airway clearance.
Goal: To keep airways open and to encourage productive coughing.
Interventions: Encourage hydration intake, help with good coughing techniques, and give recommended respiratory drugs.
Acute Pain from coughing, irritation, and pleuritic chest pain.
Goal: To ease discomfort and agony.
Administer painkillers as directed, arrange the patient for comfort, and instruct in relaxation methods.
Compromised immune system and invasive respiratory procedures both increase the risk of infection.
Goal: Encourage asepsis and prevent infection.
Interventions: Keep an eye on vital signs and infection-related symptoms, practice good hand hygiene, take appropriate isolation precautions, and give recommended antibiotics.
Breathing patterns that are inefficient because of lung congestion and exhaustion of the respiratory muscles.
Improve breathing technique is the aim.
Encourage and help with deep breathing exercises, keep an eye on respiratory rate and rhythm, and if necessary, give bronchodilators.
fatigue brought on by harder breathing and lower oxygenation.
Goal: Encourage energy saving and lessen weariness.
Interventions: Include rest breaks in your care activities, offer assistance with daily living tasks, and promote healthy eating and hydration.
dyspnea-related anxiety, worry about a condition getting worse, or discomfort with the hospital surroundings.
Goal: Encourage coping skills and lessen anxiety.
Interventions include teaching relaxation techniques, offering emotional support and information, and include the patient in the decision-making process.
Immobility and potential diaphoresis are associated with impaired skin integrity.
Goal: To keep the skin’s integrity.
Interventions: Rotate and reposition the patient frequently, take care of their skin, and apply pressure as required.
Ineffective illness and hospitalization coping.
Improve emotional health and coping mechanisms.
Interventions include evaluating the patient’s coping skills, offering emotional support, and including the patient in the development of their care plan.
Such nursing diagnoses are merely examples that should be customized based on the particular assessment results of the patient. The patient’s evolving needs and response to treatments should be taken into consideration while revising and adjusting nursing care plans on a frequent basis. In order to give patients with pneumonia thorough care, nurses must work in tandem with the medical staff.
Pneumonia Nursing Interventions
Nursing care for pneumonia focuses on symptom relief, recovery promotion, preventing complications, and all-around patient care. These treatments should be carried out in cooperation with the medical staff and customized to the needs of each individual patient. Following are a few typical nursing treatments for pneumonia:
Monitoring and Evaluation:
Check your temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure frequently.
Utilize pulse oximetry to track levels of oxygen saturation.
Check for crackles, wheezing, and reduced breath sounds in the lungs.
Keep an eye out for modifications in mental state or symptoms of respiratory distress.
To treat the underlying infection, give prescription antibiotics or antiviral drugs.
Give analgesics to treat pain and antipyretics to treat fever.
If necessary, provide bronchodilators to enhance airway performance and facilitate breathing.
Therapy using Oxygen
To maintain appropriate oxygenation, give supplemental oxygen as directed.
To maintain desired oxygen saturation levels, keep an eye on oxygen flow rates and make adjustments as necessary.
Therapy for the chest
To help clear respiratory secretions, encourage mindful breathing exercises, coughing, and efficient airway clearance techniques.
If the doctor orders it, assist the patient with postural drainage.
Encourage oral fluid intake unless it is contraindicated to ensure appropriate hydration.
To avoid dehydration or fluid overload, keep an eye on your fluid intake and output.
To address the patient’s nutritional demands and encourage healing, offer a balanced diet.
In the event that the patient has a decreased appetite, suggest smaller, more frequent meals.
Watch your weight and your dietary status.
To treat chest pain and discomfort, provide painkillers as directed.
Teach breathing exercises to reduce stress and pain.
To stop the spread of infection, practice thorough hand cleanliness and follow the rules of safety.
Inform the patient and their family about appropriate respiratory care and coughing manners.
Positioning and Mobility:
To avoid atelectasis and enhance ventilation, advise the patient to change positions often.
Encourage early ambulation as soon as it is safe to do so to avoid consequences from immobility.
Education and Assistance:
Inform the patient and their loved ones about pneumonia, its causes, and the value of finishing the course of antibiotics that have been recommended.
Provide advice on how to deal with symptoms, spot illnesses that are getting worse, and, if required, seek immediate medical help.
To reduce anxiety and encourage coping, provide reassurance and emotional support.
Planning for Follow-Up and Discharge:
Create a schedule for follow-up visits and doctor’s appointments.
Make sure the patient is aware of the significance of finishing the prescribed course of treatment.
Discuss any required lifestyle changes, such as advice on quitting smoking or recommended vaccinations.
Keep the patient in a spotless, well-ventilated environment.
Maintain the functionality of equipment, such as oxygen supply systems.
Nursing care for pneumonia ought to be individualized for each patient’s condition and directed by the physician’s directions. Effective care and tracking the patient’s progress depend on regular evaluation and constant communication with the medical staff.
Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan
A nursing care plan must be developed for a patient with pneumonia after needs are identified, goals are determined, and actions are planned to meet those needs. A sample nursing care schedule for a patient with pneumonia is shown below:
[Name of the Patient]
Diagnosed with pneumonia
Nursing Diagnosis 1: Reduced oxygen diffusion brought on by pneumonia and impaired gas exchange due to inflammation of the alveoli.
A PaO2 within the normal range (80-100 mmHg) and a rate of respiration within the normal range (12–20 breaths/minute) will serve as indicators of the patient’s improved gas exchange.
Regularly check your breathing’s depth, pace, and effort.
Apply the prescribed oxygen therapy to keep your blood’s oxygen saturation level over 94%.
Encourage and help with spirometry incentives every two hours while awake, as well as deep breathing exercises.
To facilitate the best lung expansion, place the patient in a semi-Fowler’s position.
As directed, check the ABG levels and pulse oximetry.
Nursing Diagnosis 2: Impaired cough reflex and insufficient airway clearance due to increased mucus production.
Ideally, the patient will continue to have clean airways, as seen by productive coughing and the absence of audible sounds from accidental breathing.
To clear respiratory secretions, encourage the patient to routinely cough and take deep breaths.
Nebulized bronchodilators and mucolytic drugs should be administered as directed.
Drink enough water to aid in liquifying mucus.
As directed, engage in chest physical therapy to help with mucus clearing.
At least once every 4 hours, listen for lung sounds and record the results.
Acute Pain Associated with Chest Inflammation and Coughing is nursing diagnosis number three.
Goal: The patient will feel less pain, as shown by a self-reported pain level of no more than three on a scale of one to ten.
Give prescription painkillers as directed.
To increase comfort, encourage and help with positional adjustments.
To assist people manage their discomfort, teach them relaxation techniques like breathing deeply and guided imagery.
Nursing Risk of infection associated with exposure to infectious agents is the fourth diagnosis.
The patient will avoid contracting any nosocomial infections.
Use the usual infection control procedures, such as washing your hands often and donning the proper personal protective equipment (PPE).
Inform the patient and their family about appropriate respiratory care and coughing manners.
Keep an eye out for infection-related symptoms like fever or increased production of sputum.
Impaired nutritional status associated with decreased appetite and exhaustion is nursing diagnosis number five.
Goal: The patient will show improved nutritional intake while maintaining or gaining weight.
Examine the patient’s dietary preferences and nutritional status.
Offer easily chewed and swallowed small, frequent meals.
if required, suggest dietary supplements.
To avoid dehydration between meals, encourage oral fluid intake.
Regularly keep an eye on your weight and nutrient intake.
Are you looking for professional pneumonia nursing assignment help? We have the best writing team to help you ace your assignments every single time. Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection of the lungs. The small sacs in the lungs called alveoli normally fill up with air when a person inhales. When your lungs are infected with pneumonia, the alveolus will fill up with fluid and pus. This will make breathing difficult and painful and most importantly restrict oxygen hence making it a life-threatening condition.
Further, they will become inflamed and therefore bring about symptoms such as coughing (with pus), chills, and fever. Bacteria and viruses cause pneumonia and the seriousness depends on the extent of the infection. This ranges from mild to severe/life-threatening.
Pneumonia is known to mostly affect small children whereby it is responsible for 14% of the deaths of children under the age of 5.
Pneumonia Nursing Assessment
When providing care for a patient with pneumonia, a complete nursing assessment is essential. It aids in determining the patient’s health, organizing suitable care, and keeping track of their development. Key elements of a nursing assessment for an individual with pneumonia include the following:
Obtain a thorough medical history, including information on recent illnesses, allergies, pre-existing lung diseases, and current medications.
Inquire about symptoms including coughing, sputum production, pain in the chest, fever, exhaustion, and shortness of breath.
an examination of the body
Determine your vital indicators, such as your body temperature, heartbeat, breathing rate, and blood pressure. In pneumonia, elevated temperature and a rapid breathing rate are typical symptoms.
Find aberrant breath sounds, such as crackles, wheezes, or decreased breath sounds, by auscultating the lungs.
Look for any retractions, usage of accessory muscles, or indications of difficult breathing on the chest.
Verify your fingers for clubbing, which could point to a chronic respiratory condition.
Examine the patient’s skin tone and health, looking out for any cyanosis (bluish skin) symptoms.
Using pulse oximetry, determine the oxygen saturation (SpO2) level.
Keep an eye on the patient’s respiratory effort and take note of any respiratory distress symptoms, like nasal flare-ups or pursed-lip breathing.
Evaluate the sputum production, frequency, and other aspects of the cough.
To confirm the existence of infiltrates or consolidation in the lungs, review the results of the chest X-ray.Lab Examinations:
Examine blood work, including a complete blood count (CBC) to determine the white blood cell count (which is high in infection), arterial blood gases (ABGs) to determine the oxygenation level, and acid base balance.
Psychosocial and cultural assessment:
Take into account cultural preferences and beliefs that might influence healthcare choices.
Determine the patient’s psychological health, including their level of anxiety, coping skills, and support network.
Ask about any chest pain or discomfort and where it is located.
Assess the severity of your pain using a scale.
Analyze the patient’s appetite and dietary preferences as well as their nutritional state.
Keep an eye on weight changes and look for indicators of malnutrition.
Status of Fluid and Hydration:
Examine fluid intake and output to spot indicators of fluid overload or dehydration.
Take note of the color and amount of urine produced.
History of medications and treatments:
Make sure the patient is taking the prescription antibiotics and other drugs as directed by checking their medication list.
Any therapies or treatments, such as oxygen therapy, nebulizer therapy, or chest physical therapy, should be documented.
educating the patient
Examine the patient’s understanding of pneumonia, its causes, and the significance of following the prescribed treatment.
Determine any educational requirements for controlling the condition.
Make sure there are no dangers in the patient’s environment that could cause falls or accidents.
Assess the patient’s capacity for everyday tasks and look for any mobility problems.
Consider the patient’s need for continued care, subsequent appointments, and local resources as you start preparing your discharge.
Create a discharge plan in cooperation with the medical staff to enable a secure transition from hospital to home care.
Keep in mind that a thorough nursing assessment is a continuous procedure. To track the patient’s reaction to treatment and make any modifications to the care plan, frequent reassessment is important. To offer patients with pneumonia with high-quality care, the healthcare team and patient must effectively communicate with one another.
What are the Causes of Pneumonia?
Since we have established that bacteria and viruses cause pneumonia, it is also important to note that the Streptococcus pneumonia is one of the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia. Other types of bacterial pneumonia include;
- Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
- Legionella pneumonia
- Haemophilus influenzae
Respiratory bacteria causes viral pneumonia. These viruses include; measles, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus infection, SARS-CoV-2 infection, human parainfluenza virus infection (HPIV), and chicken pox.
The symptoms of both bacterial and viral pneumonia are similar. However, it is noted that viral pneumonia symptoms are milder and can even clear up by themselves in 1-3 weeks. It is important to note that viral pneumonia can transition into bacterial pneumonia.
This is spread around through the fungi in bird droppings or the soil and it usually affects people with a weak immune system. The fungi in question include; cryptococcus species, pneumocystis jirovecii, and histoplasmosis species.
Is Pneumonia Contagious?
The answer is yes. Inhaling the droplets from the cough or sneezes of infected people can spread Pneumonia (both bacterial or viral). Bacteria and viruses known as Haemophilus influenza and streptococcus pneumoniae are the leading causes of this. Coming into contact with surfaces that are contaminated with the virus or bacteria that cause pneumonia. It is also important to note that you can contract pneumonia from the environment.
What are the Symptoms of Pneumonia?
The symptoms of pneumonia sometimes vary depending on the age of the patient as well as underlying health issues. For instance, infants may lack symptoms but exhibit a lack of energy, vomit, or experience difficulty eating or drinking. Further, children under 5 years may experience wheezing and/or fast breathing. Older patients will experience milder symptoms such as low body temperature and confusion. The common symptoms of pneumonia include;
- Coughing that may produce pus
- Chest pain especially when you breathe or cough
- Lack of appetite
How is Pneumonia Classified?
Pneumonia is classified depending on how and where it is acquired.
- Community-Acquired Pneumonia. One acquires this type of pneumonia away from a medical facility
- Aspiration Pneumonia. One is likely to contact this type of pneumonia by inhaling bacteria from saliva, food, or drinks into the lungs. This is more likely to occur if you have difficulty swallowing.
- Hospital Acquired Pneumonia. This usually occurs after a hospital stay. It is the most stubborn type of pneumonia as it is likely more resistant to antibiotics. This makes it difficult to treat.
- Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. This type of pneumonia especially occurs in people who use ventilators.
What is Walking Pneumonia?
It is a mild type of pneumonia, and the mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for it. It usually goes unnoticed. People with walking pneumonia usually wave it off as a mild respiratory infection and this may go untreated/undiagnosed for an extended period hence making the recovery period longer than usual. Its symptoms may include; chills, mild fever, reduced appetite, dry cough, chest pain, and lastly, shortness of breath.
Stages of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is classified by the area of the lungs affected.
- Lobar Pneumonia
Your lungs are made up of lobes. Lobar pneumonia means that one or more lobes of the lungs are affected. There are 4 stages of lobar pneumonia depending on the extent of the pneumonia.
- Red Hepatization- In this case, your lungs have a solid and red appearance. This is because there are immune cells and red blood cells in the fluid.
- Gray Hepatization- At this stage, your red blood cells begin breaking down as the white immune cells remain. This means that the lung tissue changes to a gray color from red.
- Congestion- The fluid in the air sacs in your lungs contains infectious organisms and the tissue in the lungs will appear congested and heavy.
- Resolution- This stage means that your body’s immunity is actively fighting off the infection. Coughing at this stage will help to eject the remaining fluid from your lungs.
Lastly, this is a type of pneumonia that affects the areas around the bronchi. Bronchi are the tubes that branch out from your windpipe to your lungs.
Diagnosis of Pneumonia
A doctor is going to first take your medical history and then ask you when the symptoms started to manifest themselves. Thereafter, they will then proceed to give you a physical exam such as listening to your lungs using a stethoscope. This way, they are trying to detect unusual sounds such as crackling in your lungs.
- XRAY- You may also be sent to get an x-ray which will help detect inflammation in the lungs and its exact location and how extensive it is.
- Blood Sample- The doctor may also require a blood sample. This will confirm the infection and what’s causing it.
- CT-SCAN- This creates a better picture of your lungs and the infection for your doctor.
- Pulse Oximetry- This device measures the amount of oxygen in your blood. This way, the doctors will know whether your lungs are pushing enough oxygen into your blood.
- Bronchoscopy- This involves a tube with a camera which goes through your mouth and into your lungs to examine if your airways are open.
- Fluid Sample- In this case, a needle goes in between your ribs to collect a fluid sample in the pleural space in your chest. It will help identify the presence of infection.
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